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Bioimpedance and impedance vector patterns as predictors of league level in male soccer players”
ML Micheli, L Pagani, M Marella, M Gulisano, A Piccoli, F Angelini, M Burtscher and H Gatterer
Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014 May; 9(3): 532-9. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2013-0119

Reference data for bioimpedance variables exist for the normal healthy population and for different patient groups, but are lacking for elite athletes who differ from the general population in terms of body composition. Researchers working in Italy, Austria, and Malta collaborated to establish reference values for male football (soccer) players at different levels of performance.

A total of 893 players were recruited from Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio (the Italian football federation) and divided into five groups according to the divisions in which they played: elite players (divisions 1-2), high-level players, medium-level semi-professionals, medium-low players, and amateurs (divisions 9-10). Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was done with the players at rest, using a phase-sensitive impedance plethysmograph (BIA-101, Akern-RJL Systems).

The five groups differed significantly in age, height and weight, and in most variables of body composition with the exception of Xc/H. Bioimpedance vectors (R/H vs. Xc/H) for the five groups were all significantly shifted to the left compared to reference values for the healthy Italian population, and the vector for the elite-level athletes was shifted furthest left relative to the other groups. The report presents the 50%, 75%, and 95% tolerance ellipses for all players and for elite players. The authors commented that these ellipses “might be useful for interpretation of individual vectors and to define target regions of impedance vectors for low-level players.” They suggested that the observed difference between the athletes and the normal healthy population “reflects a specific body composition, which might be a consequence of sports-specific training and performance,” but noted that additional studies are needed to determine if these tolerance ellipses can be used to monitor hydration status and performance of these athletes.

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Bioimpedance Identifies Body Fluid Loss after Exercise in the Heat: A Pilot Study with Body Cooling
Hannes Gatterer, Kai Schenk, Lisa Laninschegg, Philipp Schlemmer, Henry Lukaski, Martin Burtscher

Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) values. Gatterer et al investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently, and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a 15 minutes cold shower. Before the run, bioimpedance values , body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured.

After the shower body mass was measured; bioimpedance measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.

Results: Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p,0.05) with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p,0.001).In conclusion this study demonstrated that BIVA changes convincingly mirrors water loss within an exercise and heat induced fluid loss trial. (Use of BIA 101 Anniversary Sport edition)

PLoS One. 2014; 9(10): e109729. Published online 2014 October 3. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109729
Copyright: _ 2014 Gatterer et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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